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History of the clocks and its evolution


Century XXXV bC

3500 b.C. - THE man begins to use the shades of the stones and hills as reference of time.

Century XXXI bC

3000 b.C. - Clock of Sun. First Gnomon appears

Century XVI bC

1500 b.C. - Registration Egyptian mortuary mentions a clepsydra; clock of water, built for king Amenophis I.

Century X bC

950 b.C. - Homero mentions in its works the periods of the day and of the solar year.

Century VII bC

600 b.C. - Reference to a sun clock, called " hourly " stone, built in Babylon, by Beroso.

Century V bC

430 b.C. - In Greece it begins to the clepsydra to be used.

Century III bC

287 b.C. - Arquimedes invents the jagged wheels.

Century II bC

157 b.C. - Rome knows the clepsydra, taken by Scipião Násica.

Century I bC

27 b.C. - it is erected in the Field of Mars, in Rome, a shaft with the function of Gnomon.

Century III

250 - a.C. references Appear to the first clocks of sand, ampulhetas.

Century VIII

721 - Y. Hang, Chinese astronomer, builds a mechanical clepsydra that indicated the movement of the stars.

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Century IX

885 - Alfredo the Big uses candles to measure the time.

Century XI

1090 - Chinese Su-Sung publishes an agreement on tower clocks, moved the water.

Century XIII

1251 - architect Villard draws a clock exhaust.

1292 - the clock of the cathedral of Canterbury is built.

Century XIV

1330 -THE abbot Ricardo of Walingfard builds Santo Albano's astronomical clock.

1380 - they appear in the italic peninsula the first domestic clocks.

Century XV

1459 - the ribbon of steel is applied for the first time in the clocks as element motor, the spring.

1500 - Pedro Henlein, of Nuremberd invents a portable clock.

Century XVI

1525 - the snail is invented by Jacob Zech, of Plague.

1530 - they begin to be used brass platinums in the portable clocks.

1549 - the Portuguese introduce in Japan the mechanical clocks.

1560 - the current of the snail appears, that substitutes the gut thread.

1570 - the application of the illustrations begins encouraged in the watch-maker's shop.

1582 - Galileu Galilei discovers the isosincronismo of the oscillations of the pendulum.

1585 - Jost Burgi builds a clock with rope for three months.

1587 - it begins in Geneva, Switzerland, the production of clocks.

1600 - he/she/it generalizes the production and use of portable clocks, that take the most varied forms.

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Century XVII

1610 - the use of the protection glasses begins on the counters and pointers of the portable clocks.

1640 - Galileu Galilei, with 76 years and blind, told to its son and its student Viviani everybody the details that allowed the theses to draw the celebrated clock of Galileu, provided of a pendulum and a free exhaust.

1650 - Christian Huygens plans the application of the pendulum us clock.

1657 - the first clock is built to pendulum by the watchmaker Salomão Coster, of The Hague.

1670 - the pointer of minutes begins to be applied.

1675 - Christian Huygens invents the spiral of steel, hair, for pocket clocks, substituting the pig bristle.

1676 - Quare and Barlow create the repetition soneria, beating hours and rooms, for the pressure of the support of the ring, in the portable clocks.

1700 - they appear on this century the first clocks of oil.

Century XVIII

1704 - Nicolas Fatio is the first to produce and to use in the clocks rubies perforated as you limp.

1714 - the English parliament offers a prize for the manufacturer of a clock that allowed better determination of the longitude in the sea.

1726 - George Graham invents the pendulum with compensation to mercury.

1730 - the first clock Cuckoo is manufactured at the Black Forest.

1748 - Pierre Reads Roy it presents to the Academy of Sciences of Paris a free exhaust.

1751 - it is manufactured in Paris, for he/she Reads Plat, a clock that carries its rope, with variations of the atmospheric pressure.

1759 - Thomas Mudge invents the escape the anchor for portable clocks, still used in our days, with some alterations, in all the modern pulse clocks to the rope.

1761 - John Harrison, with its chronometer of marine number four, solves the problem of the longitudes in the sea and it receives from the English government a part of the prize of 20 thousand pounds.

1761 - for the first time the term chronometer is used by Pierre he/she Reads Roy.

1765 - the central pointer of seconds appears.

1775 - John Arnold invents the helical hair, for chronometers.

1790 - Abraham Louis Breguet improves and it introduces important innovations in the pocket clocks, such as automatic rope, system the shock test, etc..

1800 - the electric pile is invented, for Alexandre it Returns.

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Century XIX

1830 - for the first time a pendulum is worked by the electricity by physical Zamboni, of Verona.

1840 - Lord Grimthorpe invents the escape to the gravity, especially conceived for Big-Ben from London.

1842 - Adrien Philippe begins the production of its pocket clocks, with rope for the crown.

1856 - Louis Clement François Breguet idealizes a device eletromagnético, to carry the rope of the clocks.

1865 - George Fréderic Roskopf invents the economic exhaust, with pinos anchors.

1880 - the couple Curie discovers the piezo-electric qualities of the crystal of quartz.

1884 - the meridian of Greenwich is accepted internationally about the initial point in the scale of the meridians for the calculation of the longitudes.

1884 - White Thomas Edison discovers the emission termoiônica, effect of Edison, that allowed the creation of the electronic valve.

1891 - Sigismundo Riefler invents an exhaust for pendulum of Observatories.

1900 - invented by Santos Dumont, to see the hours while he/she handled the instruments of the balloons, without having that for the hand in the pocket, the use of the pulse clocks begins.

Century XX

1912 - first International Conference of the Hour in Paris: - unification of the hourly signs for radio. I use universal of the Greenwich-Mean Team.

1914 - John Harwood patents a device of automatic rope, adapted for the pulse clocks.

1918 - H. E. Warren accomplishes the first synchronous electric motor, for clocks.

1928 - IAU recommends the designation " Universal Team " for the medium solar day in Greenwich counted starting from midnight.

1930 - Warren A. Morrison builds the first clock to crystal of quartz.

1935 - comparisons between astronomical observations and the clocks of quartz in Postdam indicated irregular and unexpected variations in the rotation of the Earth.

1941 - it is founded in São Paulo the Brazilian Institute of Watch-maker's shop.

1942 - I. I. Rabi begins the researches related to the nucleus of the atoms, what will take to the atomic clock.

1948 - experimentalmente appears the first transistor, due to Willian Shochley's works.

1948 - the first atomic clock is built in " National Bureau Standard " of, USA.

1948 - researches on clocks, commanded by signs of radio, are initiate in Brazil, by Dimas of Melo Pimenta.

1950 - introduction of the scale of time of Efemérides (ET).

1955 - Charles H. Townes guides the construction of the atomic clock of Maser.

1956 - J.R. Zacharias and R.T. Daly, presents the first commercial atomic clock.

1957 - Max Hetzel, of the factory Hamilton of the USA, presents the first clock of electronic pulse.

1958 Pesquisas Relojoeiras's Laboratory, of Neuchatel, builds the first Swiss atomic clock.

1958 - P. Bender of NBS (USA), it develops technique that allows the construction of atomic patterns of rubídio later.

1959 - the factory Dimep of Brazil begins the researches for the production of clocks to quartz in Brazil.

1960 - the American armed forces conceive the project for the system sailing GPS that as by-product allows the disseminação of time and frequency in the whole world, with great precision.

1967 - they appear in the world market the first pulse clocks to quartz, with counters and conventional pointers.

1967 - to 13a General Conference of Weights and Measures (CGPM), it started to consider the pattern of Cesium, as base for the definition of the unit of time (second).

1969 - maid the scale of Atomic Time Internacional(TAI).

1970 - it begins to work in Brazil, in the National Observatory, the 1° Atomic Pattern of Cesium.

1972 - it begins to be marketed in the USA the pulse clocks with digital counter of LED.

1972 - the new system of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), based on the atomic patterns, it started to invigorate the starting from January 1°.

1973 - approval of the system GPS.

1974 - it arrives to the National Observatory, the 1° Atomic Pattern of Rubídio.

1978 - release of the first of the 18 satellites that you/they will compose the system.

1983 - release of the eighth satellite of the system GPS.

1985 - release of the eleventh satellite of the system GPS.

1986 - it begins to the standard alphatime to be idealized by José from Costa Santos.

1987 - the factory of automobiles GM in the USA plans to have in its receiving automobiles for GPS.

1996 - installed in the National Observatory, 2 Masers of Hydrogen of the Marca KVARZ, the first of Southern Hemisphere.

1997 - installed in the National Observatory, two patterns of Cesium HP5071A, the most modern of the present time.

1998 - it is idealized in the book it was of the Adolescence it was of the Love, the details of the web's clock, the first clock to mark 2 patterns of time at the same time UT and the alphatime (alphabetical time).

2000 - the first table prototypes are built and of wall of the clock that will mark the new time, the alphatime, future standard time of the internet, to mark encounters and commitments without having to calculate time zone, just using 2 letters staying the precision of 1 minute.


1 - DIMAS OF, M. PIMENTA - THE Relógio ...Sua História, Dimep 1976.

2 - BYRON E. BLAIR, Editor - Team and Frequency: Theory and Fundamentals, NBS monograph 140, May 1974.

3 - MARTIN R. STEGLITZ - Global The Positioning System, Microwave Journal, April 1986.

4 - WILLIS I. MILHAN - Team and Timekeepers, Macmillan 1974.


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